Badges, or digital certificates of achievements, are graphic ‘png’ image files with embedded, readable information about the learning it represents (Casey 2015). This information is used to determine the validity, authenticity, source, and value of a badge and includes (Finkelstein, Knight and Manning 2013:2):

  • the recipient, or individual who earned the achievement
  • the issuer, or individual or organisation taking responsibility for issuing the badge
  • the criteria and description, or what needed to done or demonstrated in order to earn the badge
  • the evidence, or an authentic representation or connection to the underlying work performed or contribution made to earn the badge
  • the date when the badge was awarded
  • its expiration date, if ever the credential bestowed will be no longer valid, and
  • a certificate or assertion or a connection to an official form of verification vouching for the validity of the award).
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